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Grameen Express Credit Facility

INTRODUCTION
Greenhouse gases emission
A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Greenhouse gases greatly affect the temperature of the Earth.
Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (taken as the year 1750), the burning of fossil fuels and extensive clearing of native forests has contributed to a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. This increase has occurred despite the uptake of a large portion of the emissions by various natural "sinks" involved in the carbon cycle e,g. Forests.
Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2)  emissions (i.e., emissions produced by human activities) come from combustion of carbon-based fuels, principally wood, coal, oil, and natural gas. Under ongoing greenhouse gas emissions, available Earth System Models project that the Earth surface temperature could exceed historical analogs as early as 2047 affecting most ecosystems on Earth and the livelihoods of over 3 billion people worldwide.
 
Global warming, climate change and implications

1.    Global warming is the increase of Earth average surface temperature due to greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation, which trap heat that would otherwise escape from Earth.
2.    Greenhouse gases keep heat close to the earth surface making it livable for humans and animals. However, global warming is happening largely due to an over-emittance of these gases and fossil fuels (natural oil, gasoline, coal).
3.    With the start of industry in the 17th century, humans began emitting more fossil fuels from coal, oil, and gas to run our cars, trucks, and factories. By driving a “smarter” car (Solar powered), you will not only save on gas, but help prevent global warming.
4.    There is more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere today than at any point in the last 800,000 years.
5.    Consequences of global warming include drought, severe hurricanes, massive fires and melting of the polar caps which increase the levels of poverty in the world.
6.    Heat waves caused by global warming present greater risk of heat-related illness and death, most frequently among patients of diabetes who are elderly or very young.
Mitigation of global warming and climate change
Climate change mitigation are actions to limit the magnitude and/or rate of long-term climate change. Climate change mitigation generally involves reductions in human (anthropogenic) emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Mitigation may also be achieved by increasing the capacity of carbon sinks, e.g., through reforestation. Mitigation policies can substantially reduce the risks associated with human-induced global warming.
Some mitigation adaptation actions have characteristics of a private good as benefits of actions may accrue more directly to the individuals, regions, or countries that undertake them, at least in the short term. Nevertheless, financing such adaptive activities remains an issue, particularly for poor individuals and countries. Therefore the poor need to be included in these mitigation adaptation actions. One of the ways to do this is through the grameen credit model as practiced in Bangladesh; this is explained in another section of this web page.
Examples of mitigation include switching to low-carbon energy sources, such as renewable and nuclear energy, and expanding forests and other "sinks" to remove greater amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Energy efficiency may also play a role, for example, through improving the insulation of buildings.
Renewable sources of energy
It is estimated that in Kenya 77% people do not have electricity connections. Over 85 % of the populations rely on traditional fuels such as firewood, charcoal, dung, and agricultural residues for cooking and heating and these lead into Green House Gases Emissions.
Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat. Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation, hot water/space heating, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services.]

Most renewable sources of energy are short term expensive but long term cheap. This implies that the poor may not be able to access them initially. In order to enable accessibility of renewable sources of energy to the poor we need to have innovative ways of making this practical. One of the ways to do that is through adaptation of the grameen credit model as practiced in Bangladesh for this purpose. This adaptation of the grameen credit model of bangladesh in our operations is what we are calling the Grameen Express Credit Facility which we have explaineed further in this section. Refer to the sections below for more information on the adaptation of the Grameen credit model of Bangladesh;

 

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