The pictures below illustrate the various packages of calcium Hypochlorite Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited can supply for the disinfection/treatment of drinking water.
Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited, operate from a prime location of Nairobi, Kenya. We are reckoned around the globe as a profound Exporter, Trader and Supplier of a diversified range of products. Some of these include Calcium hypochlorite. We ensure we source products that are developed from top-notch ingredients and chemicals from authentic vendor bases. Apart from this, we also deal in Formulations & Sourcing Services for Calcium Hypochlorite. Our worldwide distribution network and efficient logistics helps us is reaching thousands of national and international clients on time. Try us to experience our efficiency.
How does Calcium Hypochlorite work? When put in untreated water it releases chlorine gas. Chlorine is one of the most widely used disinfectants. It is very applicable and very effective for the deactivation of pathogenic microorganisms. Chlorine can be easily applied, measured and controlled. Is fairly persistent and relatively cheap.
Chlorine kills pathogens such as bacteria and viruses by breaking the chemical bonds in their molecules. Disinfectants that are used for this purpose consist of chlorine compounds which can exchange atoms with other compounds, such as enzymes in bacteria and other cells. When enzymes come in contact with chlorine, one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the molecule are replaced by chlorine. This causes the entire molecule to change shape or fall apart. When enzymes do not function properly, a cell or bacterium will die.
The pictures below illustrate an example of a product of Chlorine gas which Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited can supply for the disinfection/treatment of drinking water.
We are renowned Exporter, Trader and Supplier of chlorine gas for drinking water treatment. We ensure we source products that are developed from top-notch ingredients for quality, efficacy and safety and chemicals from authentic vendor bases. Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited delivery systems for these chemical are very fast and reliable. You just need to make a call to our supplies and purchase department and we deliver within 24 hours. Our worldwide distribution network and efficient logistics helps us is reaching thousands of national and international clients on time. Try us to experience our efficiency.
How does chlorine gas work?
- Equipment Design
In a “pressure” type system chlorine enters through a pressure-vacuum regulating valve, passes by a relief valve, then travels through a rotameter and a flowrate adjusting valve. Pressure-vacuum regulating valves are designed to maintain a constant pressure (usually a vacuum). They also serve as a check valve in the event of ejector vacuum loss. Relief valves prevent buildup of chlorine pressure within the system. Water under pressure passes through an ejector, creating a vacuum. This vacuum opens a spring-loaded valve in the ejector body. When the valve opens, chlorine mixes with water in the ejector to form a chlorine solution that is then ejected into the water being treated
(Courtesy of Modern Process Systems, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA)
In vacuum systems the vacuum created by the water pulls a diaphragm, which pushes open a spring-loaded inlet valve. Chlorine gas is drawn from the cylinder, through the chlorinator, through the vacuum tubing, and into the ejector. There it mixes with water and is ejected into the water being treated.
- Chlorine as a oxidizing agent in water treatment
Methods of action of chlorine
- Kills pathogenic bacteria or disease causing bacteria
- Oxidizes iron, manganese and hydrogen sulphide which are also found dissolved in water
- Reduces bad taste and oduors (smells)
- Controls the growth of algae in the water
- Maintains residual disinfection
- Mechanism of action is as illustrated in the diagram below;
The pictures below illustrate the various packages of Aluminium sulphate Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited can supply for the disinfection/treatment of drinking water.
Other packages include plastic containers as illustrated above;
Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited are availing our clients a wide array of Aluminum Sulphate. Procured from the trusted vendors of the market, these products are processed under hygienic conditions using high-quality ingredients in accordance to international quality standards. Owing to the purity, longer service life and precise composition, these products are highly appreciated and demanded among the customers. Clients can avail these products from Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited at market reasonable prices.
How does Aluminium Sulphate work?
One of the first of the several steps that municipal water suppliers use to prepare water for distribution is getting it as clear and as particulate-free as possible. To accomplish this, the water is treated with aluminum sulfate, commonly called alum, which serves as a flocculant. Raw water often holds tiny suspended particles that are very difficult for a filter to catch. Alum causes them to clump together so that they can settle out of the water or be easily trapped by a filter.
Usually a mixture of water with 48 percent filter alum is injected into the raw incoming water at a rate of 18 to 24 parts per million. The alum promotes coagulation of fine particles which helps resolve problems of color as well turbidity. If the process is given enough time to work and is applied properly, it not only corrects problems in the water but actually results in removing most of the aluminum used in the process.
Coagulation/flocculation is a process used to remove turbidity, color, and some bacteria from water. In the flash mix chamber, chemicals are added to the water and mixed violently for less than a minute. These coagulants consist of primary coagulants and/or coagulant aids. Then, in the flocculation basin, the water is gently stirred for 30 to 45 minutes to give the chemicals time to act and to promote floc formation. The floc then settles out in the sedimentation basin.
Coagulation removes colloids and suspended solids from the water. These particles have a negative charge, so the positively charged coagulant chemicals neutralize them during coagulation. Then, during flocculation, the particles are drawn together by van der Waal’s forces, forming floc. The coagulation/flocculation process is affected by pH, salts, alkalinity, turbidity, temperature, mixing, and coagulant chemicals.
The pictures below illustrate the various packages of Aluminium Sulphate Rock Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited can supply for the disinfection/treatment of drinking water;
Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited are availing our clients a wide array of Aluminum Sulphate rock crystal procured from the trusted vendors of the market, these products are processed under hygienic conditions using high-quality ingredients in accordance to international quality standards. Owing to the purity, longer service life and precise composition, these products are highly appreciated and demanded among the customers. Clients can avail these products from Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited at market reasonable prices.
How does Aluminium Sulphate Rock work?
The most common coagulant used in water-treatment facilities is aluminum sulfate (alum, Al2(SO4)3). These salts (Crystals) dissolve in water to release ion which react with ions naturally found in the water to produce a solid precipitate. As this precipitate forms, other particles are caught in the solid, forming a mass that will settle to the bottom via sedimentation.
This is illustrated by the following diagram;
How soda ash/sodium hydroxide injection works
Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Ltd advises on the use of this treatment method if water is acidic (low pH). Soda ash (sodium carbonate) and sodium hydroxide raise the pH of water to near neutral when injected into a water system. Unlike neutralizing filters, they do not cause hardness problems in treated water.
Injection systems are a point-of-entry system. A corrosion-resistant chemical feed pump injects soda ash or sodium hydroxide solution into the water to raise the pH. The solution should be fed directly into the well to protect the well casing and pump from corrosion.
If the water needs to be disinfected as well as
neutralized, dual treatment is possible within the injection system by adding a chlorine solution (sodium hypochlorite) along with the neutralizing chemical.
Injection systems can treat water with a pH as low as 4. During maintenance as with all chemical feed systems, the chemical feed pump must be maintained and the chemical storage tanks refilled. Soda ash, the preferred chemical, is safer to handle than sodium hydroxide. Screens and filters should be periodically checked and cleaned.
There is need for special consideration when using sodium hydroxide. If adding it manually, maintain good ventilation to avoid breathing vapors. Add the chemical slowly to the water and ensure complete mixing. Be sure to wear protective gloves, goggles and clothing to avoid skin and eye contact with the chemical. Store sodium hydroxide in a cool, dry place away from flammable materials.
Individuals on a low sodium diet should consult a doctor before installing an injection system. Use manufacturer specifications to compare sodium levels in the treated water to levels consumed from other sources in the diet. Potassium hydroxide may be used as a substitute for sodium hydroxide but may cost more. This is more the reason why most systems prefer Soda Ash as opposed to Sodium Hydroxide.
How does Soda Ash work in water treatment?
The chemical name for soda ash is sodium carbonate, chemical formula Na2CO3. It is more basic, that is, less acidic, than sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), whose chemical formula is NaHCO3. The purpose of sodium carbonate is simply to increase pH.
Its use in water treatment is to increase the pH of acidic waters. The trick is how to do it and how much to use. Below are some suggestions and comments from a variety of sources.
The amounts below are a suggestion made by Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited:
Mix 2 lbs of Soda Ash with 5 gallons of water. Set your pump at 50% or 60% capacity. Let the unit run for a time, and use water as you normally would, then check the pH a few feet downstream from the injection point. If the pH isn’t where you want it, make adjustments.
Adjustment can be made by adding Soda Ash, by adding water, or by adjusting the pump up or down. Keep adjusting until you get the pH exactly where you want it.
Be sure to keep records, and keep in mind if the solution gets too strong, you may have to dump your mix and start over.
If you aren’t able to get the pH as high as you want it, you may have to switch to Caustic Soda which is Sodium Hydroxide.
Express Drainage Solutions, Kenya Limited supplies chlorine tablets of various doses for drinking water treatment. The pictures below illustrates a variety of some of the tablets and their packages;
Aquatabs are available in a range of tablet sizes. Each tablet size is formulated to treat a specific volume of water – ranging from 1L to 2,500L. Aquatabs Food-Safe is used to safely disinfect water to clean fruit & vegetables before consumption.
- Aluminium foil package AquatabsRapidly dissolving iodine-free tablets that can be used over the long term with no adverse effects. They are safe for adults (including pregnant women) and children. Effective against giardia, bacteria, and viruses, when directions are followed. They have not been proven effective against the cyst cryptosporidium when in the oocyst stage of its life cycle.
- Contains 30 tablets. In normal use with clear water, each tablet treats 20 litres.
- Requires 30 minute contact time with water.
- No odour, nor colour, and will not stain plastic bottles.
- Contains sodium dichloroisocyanurate (source of chlorine), certified to NSF / ANSI Standard 60.
- Approved and used by international aid agencies including: NATO, WHO, Unicef, International Red Cross, Medecins Sans Frontieres, and Oxfam.
What are Aquatabs?
The Aquatabs tablets supplied by Express Drainage Solutions, Kenya Limited are effervescent (self-dissolving) tablets, which when added to water kill the bacteria and viruses that cause cholera, typhoid, dysentery and other waterborne diseases. The tablets’ active ingredient is a salt-based chlorine form known as Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC).
How do they work?
When an Aquatabs tablet plunges into your water and rapidly dissolves, it forms what is called free available chlorine (FAC). FAC is a balance of differing levels of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion depending the pH level of the water.
When FAC agents come into contact with waterborne microorganisms, they attack the pathogens at various levels, either killing them or rendering them incapable of reproducing, making the water microbiologically safer to drink.
It takes just 30 minutes for the tablets to conduct their disinfection. And chlorine’s residual effects mean the water will continue to be disinfected long after initial treatment.