Supply and installation of water softener/refiner systems
The picture below illustrates a water softener/refiner system which Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited can supply and install at the Point of Entry into a Domestic consumer so that it can soften Borehole/well water;
How does a Drinking water softener system work?
Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited water softener uses a process called ion exchange to remove hard minerals from your water. The most common hard minerals that are removed are calcium and magnesium as well as chlorine and odor. An Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited softener/refiner softens your family’s water by removing the hardness minerals and sediment that weren’t removed by the municipality, and it also removes the chlorine taste and odor These minerals get in your water when rain water is absorbed into the earth. In water treatment plants these minerals are not removed so they stay in your drinking water.Some of the disadvantages of having these hard minerals and chlorine in your water is: they can keep detergents and soaps from lathering well, they can cause a scummy, white build-up on your dishes in your dishwasher, they can also cause a buildup of residue in your shower or tub, your clothing and hair can seem dull and lifeless when washed with hard water and most importantly over time the minerals can build up in your pipes, appliances, and fixtures decreasing their lifespan. When you take a shower, you can also smell chlorine or a “pool-like” smell or odor.
Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited water softener consists of two tanks, water flows into one tank that contains resin beads these resin beads have an opposite electrical charge than calcium and magnesium. Because of this opposite charge the hard minerals are exchanged for soft minerals. The softer minerals are sodium chloride or possibly potassium chloride these are manually added to the water softener on a regular basis.
Supply and installation of water Anti-scale systems
The picture below illustrates a Drinking water Anti-scale system which Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited can supply and install at the Point of Entry into a Domestic consumer so that it can stop the process of scaling of pipes
The Drinking water Anti-scale system is a new technology which transforms the calcium (hardness) of the water into mechanically stable and heat resistant calcite crystals (nanometer size) which no longer cause lime deposits. The calcium is simply rinsed away. Lime deposits look as is shown in the diagram below;
Calcium (hardness) creates scale in pipes, on appliances and other plumbing surfaces. This leads to higher heating and energy costs and expensive repairs to appliances. Scale can also be a source for bacteria to grow, which can be a health concern in drinking water applications. It also removes the already existing scale from pipes and heat exchanger surfaces (descaling effect) and further protects the system from future formation of scale (scale protection effect).
How does a Drinking water Anti-scale system function? The diagram below illustrates how Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited Anti-scale system works.
Water Travels through 4 Stages of Filtration;
- Stage 1: Water flows through a 20” sediment filter cartridge that removes sediment, silt, sand and dirt.
- Stage 2: Water flows through an Anti-Scale media tank.
- Stage 3: Water flows through a 20” solid carbon cartridge for removing volatile organic carbon compounds (VOCs), insecticides, pesticides and industrial solvents.
- Stage 4: Water passes through a 20” 0.2 micron ultrafiltration (UF) membrane. Ultrafiltration (UF) is an important purification technology used for the production of high-purity water. UF is effective for the removal of colloids, proteins, bacteria, viruses, parasites, protozoa and pyrogens (e.g., gram-negative bacterial endotoxins), other organic molecules larger than 0.2 micron, and most other water contaminants known today.
Supply and installation of Water reverse osmosis systems
The picture below illustrates a Drinking water Reverse osmosis which Express Drainage Solutions Kenya Limited can supply and install at the Point of Entry into a Domestic consumer so that it can filter drinking water.
How does Reverse osmosis work?
The pictures below illustrate a Drinking water Reverse osmosis process.Basic Components of a Reverse Osmosis System:
- Cold Water Line Valve: Valve that fits onto the cold water supply line. The valve has a tube that attaches to the inlet side of the RO pre filter. This is the water source for the RO system.
- Pre-Filter(s): Water from the cold water supply line enters the Reverse Osmosis Pre Filter first. There may be more than one pre-filter used in a Reverse Osmosis system, the most common being sediment and carbon filters. These pre-filters are used to PROTECT the RO membranes by removing sand silt, dirt, and other sediment that could clog the system. Additionally, carbon filters may be used to remove chlorine, which can damage the RO membranes.
- Reverse Osmosis Membrane: The Reverse Osmosis Membrane is the heart of the system. The semipermeable RO membrane is designed to remove a wide variety of both aesthetic and health-related contaminants. After passing through the membrane, the water goes into a pressurized storage tank where treated water is stored. The picture below illustrates how a reverse osmosis membrane works.
- Tap water carries all sorts of negative substances that are removed by the membranous and filtration layers in Reverse Osmosis system.
- Negative substances include: turbid water, pyrogens, dissolved solids, bacteria, industrial wastes, cadmium, pesticides, colloidal matter, viruses, hydrocarbons, radioactive contaminants, sulphates, chlorine, asbestos, detergents, and sodium; these are just a few that we know of.
- All these impurities are drained and fresh water passes into the RO system and to the holding tank, ready to drink.
- Household water pressure pressing water against and into a semi-permeable membrane is how the core process works. The membrane is only as thick as cellophane tape and is designed to let in only the water and none of the contaminants, if these pollutants are larger than .001 microns, they will not pass through.
- Reverse Osmosis system do not need large amounts of energy or electricity to perform this simple action. Not only is an RO system convenient and easy to clean, it also improves the odour, appearance and taste of water. This means water quality is heightened, the chlorine taste is removed and most RO systems re-introduce the calcium and magnesium removed during the membrane-transition process. All pollutants mentioned above are conveniently flushed away. A business minded person can consider the water’s production cost value and see that they are getting excellent water for pennies per gallon.
- Storage Tank: The standard RO storage tank holds from 2 – 4 gallons of water. A bladder inside the tank keeps water pressurized in the tank when it is full. The typical under counter Reverse Osmosis tank is 12 inches in diameter and 15 inches tall.
- Post filter(s): After the water leaves the RO storage tank, but before going to the RO faucet, the treated water goes through a final “post filter”. The post filter is usually a carbon filter. Any remaining tastes or odors are removed from the product water by post filtration “polishing” filter.
- Automatic Shut Off Valve (SOV): To conserve water, the RO system has an automatic shut off valve. When the storage tank is full, the automatic shut off valve closes to stop any more water from entering the membrane and blocks flow to the drain. Once water is drawn from the RO faucet, the pressure in the tank drops; the shut off valve then opens to send the drinking water through the membrane while the contaminated wastewater is diverted down the drain.
- Check Valve: A check valve is located in the outlet end of the RO membrane housing. The check valve prevents the backward flow of treated water from the RO storage tank. A backward flow could rupture the RO membrane.
- Flow Restrictor: Water flowing through the RO membrane is regulated by a flow restrictor. There are many different styles of flow controls, but their common purpose is to maintain the flow rate required to obtain the highest quality drinking water (based on the gallon capacity of the membrane). The flow restrictor also helps maintain pressure on the inlet side of the membrane. Without the additional pressure from the flow control, very little drinking water would be produced because all the incoming water would take the path of least resistance and simply flow down the drain line. The flow control is most often located in the RO drain line tubing.
- Faucet: The RO unit uses its own faucet, which is usually installed on the kitchen sink. Some areas have plumbing regulations requiring an air gap faucet, but non-air gap models are more common
- Drain line: This line runs from the outlet end of the Reverse Osmosis membrane housing to the drain. The drain line is used to dispose of the wastewater containing the impurities and contaminants that have been filtered out by the reverse osmosis membrane.
Domestic Drinking Water Treatment Facility Site Admin